The 14th chapter of Madhava Nidana is Arochaka Nidana which is a detail explanation of Anorexia. Anorexia nervosa — often simply called anorexia — is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight. People with anorexia place a high value on controlling their weight and shape, using extreme efforts that tend to significantly interfere with their lives.
Causes of Arochaka —
वातादिभिः शोक – भयातिलोभ – क्रोधैर्मनोघ्नाशन – रूप – गन्धैः |
अरोचकाः स्युः –
vātādibhiḥ śōka – bhayātilōbha – krōdhairmanōghnāśana – rūpa – gandhaiḥ |
arōcakāḥ syuḥ –
Arochaka (Anorexia) is generated by the three doshas as well as by grief, fear, greed, and anger. It is also produced by having repulsive food, perceiving repulsive sights, and smelling of bad odour. 1
Vata Type of Arochaka (Anorexia) –
–परिहृष्टदन्तः कषायवक्त्रश्च मतो अनिलेन || १ ||
–parihr̥ṣṭadantaḥ kaṣāyavaktraśca matō anilēna || 1 ||
In vataja Type of Arochaka these are seen –
- Pari hrushta Dantah — Tingling inside the gums
- Kashaya Vaktra — Astringent taste in the mouth
Pitta Type of Arochaka –
कटु अम्लमुष्णं विरसं च पूति पित्तेन विध्यात् –
kaṭu amlamuṣṇaṁ virasaṁ ca pūti pittēna vidhyāt –
In pittaja type of arochaka these are seen –
- Katu Amla Virasam — Bitter and sour taste
- Puti pittena vaktra — Warmth and bad smell is there in the mouth.
Kapha Type of Arochaka –
माधुर्य – पैच्छिल्य – गुरुत्व – शैत्य – विबद्धसम्बद्धयुतं कफेन || २ ||
mādhurya – paicchilya – gurutva – śaitya – vibaddhasambaddhayutaṁ kaphēna || 2 ||
Moreover, there is salty or sweet taste, mouth thickly coated with kapha which is sticky and feeling of cold in the kaphaja type of anorexia. 2
Aagantu Type of Arochaka –
अरोचके शोक – भयातिलोभ – क्रोधाध्यहृध्याशुचिगन्धजे स्यात् |
स्वाभाविकं चास्यमथारुचिश्च –
arōcakē śōka – bhayātilōbha – krōdhādhyahr̥dhyāśucigandhajē syāt |
svābhāvikaṁ cāsyamathāruciśca –
If the arochaka has developed due to such external factors such as grief, fear, greed, anger and other mental affections or it has developed due to intake of bad food or repulsive smell, the patient will have a natural taste in mouth. Still, he would have an aversion to food.
Tridosha type of arochaka –
— त्रिदोषजे नैकरसं भवेत्तु || ३ ||
— tridōṣajē naikarasaṁ bhavēttu || 3 ||
If arochaka has developed due to vitiation of all the three doshas, there is a multiple taste in the mouth. As each of the dosha produce different taste in the mouth. 3
Specific Symptomatology of Arochaka (Anorexia) –
हृच्छूलपीडनयुतं पवनेन, पित्ता त्तृड – दाह – चोषबहुलं , सकफप्रसेकम् |
श्लेष्मात्मकं, बहुरुजं बहुभिश्च विध्या – द्वैगुण्य – मोह – जडताभिरथापरं च || ४ ||
hr̥cchūlapīḍanayutaṁ pavanēna, pittā ttr̥ḍa – dāha – cōṣabahulaṁ , sakaphaprasēkam |
ślēṣmātmakaṁ, bahurujaṁ bahubhiśca vidhyā – dvaiguṇya – mōha – jaḍatābhirathāparaṁ ca || 4 ||
In the case of anorexia due to vitiation of Vata,
- There is pain in the region of the heart.
If it is due to vitiation of Pitta,
- There is excessive thirst, burning sensation and chosha that is painful feeling of being sucked.
If it is due to vitiation of Kapha –
- There are watery exudations from the mouth, nose and the like.
Different sorts of discomforts are produced in the tridoshaja type arochaka including delusion and dullness of the mind. 4
श्री माधवकरविरचिते माधवनिदाने अरोचक निदानं समाप्तम् ||14||
śrī mādhavakaraviracitē mādhavanidānē arōcaka nidānaṁ samāptam ||14||
Thus concludes the 14th chapter which is Arochaka Nidana.
I’m Dr. Malini Bhat MD (Ayu); an Ayurvedic Doctor and a health blogger. Follow me on social media to get daily health tips which you can easily adapt to a healthy lifestyle.