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Chapter 69 – Visha Roga Nidanam

The 69th chapter of Madhava Nidana is- Visha Roga Nidanam which deals with Diseases due to Poison.

Two kinds of Poisons

स्थावरं जङ्गमं चैव द्विविधं विषमुच्यते |
मूलाध्यात्मकमाध्यं स्यात् परं सर्पादिसम्भवम्  || १ ||

sthāvaraṁ jaṅgamaṁ caiva dvividhaṁ viṣamucyatē |
mūlādhyātmakamādhyaṁ syāt paraṁ sarpādisambhavam || 1 ||

The poisons are described to be of two kinds:

  • Sthavara and
  • Jangama

Poisons from roots and other parts of plants are Sthavara ones while the poison from animals like snakes are Jangama ones. 1

General features of Animate poisoning

निद्रां तन्द्रां क्लमं दाहमपाकं लोमहर्षणम् |
शोथं चैवातिसारं च जङ्गमं कुरुते विषम् || २ ||

nidrāṁ tandrāṁ klamaṁ dāhamapākaṁ lōmaharṣaṇam |
śōthaṁ caivātisāraṁ ca jaṅgamaṁ kurutē viṣam || 2 ||

The Jangama Visha (Animal poisons) produce:

  • Sleep
  • Lassitude
  • Fatigue
  • Burning sensation
  • Indigestion
  • Horripilation
  • Swelling and
  • Diarrhoea. 2

General features of Inanimate poisoning

स्थावरं च ज्वरं हिक्कां दन्तहर्षं गलग्रहम् |
फेनच्छर्ध्यरुचि – श्वासं मूर्छां च कुरुते भृशम् || ३ ||

sthāvaraṁ ca jvaraṁ hikkāṁ dantaharṣaṁ galagraham |
phēnacchardhyaruci – śvāsaṁ mūrchāṁ ca kurutē bhr̥śam || 3 ||

Sthavara Visha would generally generate serious types of fever, hiccuough, dental hyperaesthesia, choking in the throat, tingling of the gums, frothy vomiting, loss of appetite, difficulty in breathing and fainting. 3

Detection of the Poison givers

इङ्गितज्ञो मनुष्याणां वाक्चेष्टा – मुखवैकृतैः |
जानीयाद् विषदातारमेभिर्लिङ्गैश्च बुद्धिमान् || ४ ||
न ददात्युत्तरं पृष्टो विवक्षुर्मोहमेति च |
अपार्थं बहु सङ्कीर्णं भाषते चापि मूढवत् || ५ ||
हस्त्यकस्मात् स्फोटयत्यङ्गुलिर्विलिखेन्महिम् |
वेपथुश्चास्य भवति त्रस्तश्चान्यो अन्यमीक्षते || ६ ||
विवर्णवक्त्रो ध्यामश्च नखैः किञ्चिच्छिनत्त्यपि |
आलभेतासनं दीनः करेण च शिरोरूहम् || ७ ||
वर्तते विपरीतं च विषदाता विचेतनः |

iṅgitajñō manuṣyāṇāṁ vākcēṣṭā – mukhavaikr̥taiḥ |
jānīyād viṣadātāramēbhirliṅgaiśca buddhimān || 4 ||
na dadātyuttaraṁ pr̥ṣṭō vivakṣurmōhamēti ca |
apārthaṁ bahu saṅkīrṇaṁ bhāṣatē cāpi mūḍhavat || 5 ||
hastyakasmāt sphōṭayatyaṅgulirvilikhēnmahim |
vēpathuścāsya bhavati trastaścānyō anyamīkṣatē || 6 ||
vivarṇavaktrō dhyāmaśca nakhaiḥ kiñcicchinattyapi |
ālabhētāsanaṁ dīnaḥ karēṇa ca śirōrūham || 7 ||
vartatē viparītaṁ ca viṣadātā vicētanaḥ |

  • Intelligent persons, who can understand by hints only, can guess the poison- giver by variations in the modes of his talk, actions, and facial expression.
  • He would not quickly answer the question.
  • He would feign ignorance,
  • would give wrong and irrelevant replies,  and
  • Would talk like a fool.
  • He laughs without any sense,
  • makes knuckles from his fingers
  • Scratches the ground by toes
  • Shivers,
  • Fears others,
  • Looks at the others for support,
  • Wear dirty clothes
  • Puts on bad expression on the face,
  • Tears cloths etc., by his nails,
  • Accepts a seat with timidity and hesitation
  • Pulls out of his hairs by the hands and
  • behaves in a contradictory manner. 4-7
  •  

Features of Inanimate Poisoning

उद्वेष्तनं मूलविषैः प्रलापो मोह एव च || ८ ||
जृम्भणं वेपनं श्वासो मोहः पत्रविशेषेण तु |
मुष्कशोथः फलविषैश्छर्दिराध्मानं श्वास एव च || ९ ||
भवेत् पुष्पविषैश्च्छर्दिराध्मानं श्वास एव च |
त्वक्सार – निर्यासविषैरूपयुक्तैर्भवन्ति हि || १० ||
आस्यदौर्गन्ध्य – पारुष्य – शिरोरुक्कफसंस्रवाः |
फेनागमः क्षीरविषै र्विडभेदो गुरुगात्रता || ११ ||
हृत्पीडनं धातुविषैर्मूर्च्छा दाहश्च तालुनि |
प्रायेण कालघातीनि विषाण्येतानि निर्दिशेत् || १२ ||

udvēṣtanaṁ mūlaviṣaiḥ pralāpō mōha ēva ca || 8 ||
jr̥mbhaṇaṁ vēpanaṁ śvāsō mōhaḥ patraviśēṣēṇa tu |
muṣkaśōthaḥ phalaviṣaiśchardirādhmānaṁ śvāsa ēva ca || 9 ||
bhavēt puṣpaviṣaiścchardirādhmānaṁ śvāsa ēva ca |
tvaksāra – niryāsaviṣairūpayuktairbhavanti hi || 10 ||
āsyadaurgandhya – pāruṣya – śirōrukkaphasansravāḥ |
phēnāgamaḥ kṣīraviṣai rviḍabhēdō gurugātratā || 11 ||
hr̥tpīḍanaṁ dhātuviṣairmūrcchā dāhaśca tāluni |
prāyēṇa kālaghātīni viṣāṇyētāni nirdiśēt || 12 ||

Root poisons produces:

  • Pain all over the body (as though it is hit by a stick)
  • Delirium and
  • Delusion.

The poisonous leaves will generate:

  • Excess yawning
  • Chills
  • Difficulty in breathing and
  • Delusion

The poisonous fruits on the other hand, will generate:

  • Swelling on the face,
  • Burning sensation, and
  • Aversion to eatable.

The poisonous flowers will generate:

  • Vomiting
  • Distension of the stomach and
  • Difficulty in breathing.

The poisonous barks, gum, extract, and the like will generate:

  • Bad smell in the mouth
  • Roughness of the body
  • Headache, and
  • Exudation of fluid from mouth, nose etc.,

The poisonous latex (milky juice of plants) will generate:

  • Froth at the mouth,
  • Diarrhoea and
  • Feeling of heaviness of the body;

The poisonous minerals ores and the like will generate:

  • Pain in the region of the heart
  • Fainting and
  • Burning sensation in the palate.

All these poison generally prove kalaghati or fatal. They kill the person after some period. 8-12

Poisoning by weapons

सद्यः क्षतं पच्यते यस्य जन्तोः स्रवेद्रक्तं पच्यते चाप्यभीक्षणं |
कृष्णीभूतं क्लिन्नमत्यर्थपूति क्षतान्मांसं शीर्यते चापि यस्य ||१३ ||
तृष्णा मूर्च्छा ज्वर – दाहौ च यस्य दिग्धाहतं तं पुरुषं व्यवस्येत् |
लिङ्गान्येतान्येव कुर्यादमित्रैर्व्रणै विषं यस्य दत्तं प्रमादात् ||१४ ||

sadyaḥ kṣataṁ pacyatē yasya jantōḥ sravēdraktaṁ pacyatē cāpyabhīkṣaṇaṁ |
kr̥ṣṇībhūtaṁ klinnamatyarthapūti kṣatānmānsaṁ śīryatē cāpi yasya ||13 ||
tr̥ṣṇā mūrcchā jvara – dāhau ca yasya digdhāhataṁ taṁ puruṣaṁ vyavasyēt |
liṅgānyētānyēva kuryādamitrairvraṇai viṣaṁ yasya dattaṁ pramādāt ||14 ||

The wound undergoing pus formation immediately and frequently discharges lot of blood. The patient undergoes decomposition, his complexion turns into black, and it remains wet. The patient would emit foul smell. His muscles fall off by decomposition. Such are the features of wounds generated by weapons smeared with poison. The patient with such wounds could be having thirst, fainting, fever, and burning sensation as well.

Sometimes enemies will put poisons into ordinary wounds of persons or make the wounded person drink poison by force; even in these conditions also, the above characteristics and symptoms could be found. 13-14

Features of Oral Poisoning

सपीतं गृहधूमाभं पुरीषं यो अतिसार्यते |
फेनमुद्वमते चापि विषपीतं तमादिशेत् || १५ ||

sapītaṁ gr̥hadhūmābhaṁ purīṣaṁ yō atisāryatē |
phēnamudvamatē cāpi viṣapītaṁ tamādiśēt || 15 ||

The one who frequently passes yellowish stools with a tinge like that of house soot and brings out foam from the mouth should be considered to have taken poison orally. 15

Types of Snakes

वात – पित्त – कफात्मानो भोगि – मण्डलि – राजिलाः |
यथाक्रमं समाख्याता, द्वयान्तरा द्वन्द्वरूपिणः || १६ ||

vāta – pitta – kaphātmānō bhōgi – maṇḍali – rājilāḥ |
yathākramaṁ samākhyātā, dvayāntarā dvandvarūpiṇaḥ || 16 ||

Snakes with a blood, those with spots, and the ones with stripes have been classified as possessing in thier poisons, the properties, and qualities of Vata, pitta and Kapha respectively. The hybrid snakes could be possessing mixed qualities of two or more doshas. 16

Clinical Features of Snake bite poisoning

दंशो भोगिकृतः कृष्णः सर्ववातविकारकृत् |
पीतो मण्डललिजः शोथो मृदुः पित्तविकारवान् || १७ ||
राजिलोत्थो भवेद्दंषः स्थिरशोथश्च पिच्छिलः |
पाण्डुः स्निग्धो अतिसान्द्रासृक् सर्वश्लेष्मविकारकृत् || १८ ||

danśō bhōgikr̥taḥ kr̥ṣṇaḥ sarvavātavikārakr̥t |
pītō maṇḍalalijaḥ śōthō mr̥duḥ pittavikāravān || 17 ||
rājilōtthō bhavēddanṣaḥ sthiraśōthaśca picchilaḥ |
pāṇḍuḥ snigdhō atisāndrāsr̥k sarvaślēṣmavikārakr̥t ||18 ||

The one getting bitten by a bhogi snake becomes black and the patient generates all the features of Vata vrddhi; the one getting bitten by the mandala (snake with patches) would develop yellow complexion and would have sof swellings and all the features of pitta vrddhi. The one being bitten by the Rajila could be having a hard swelling, sticky and he would manifest a whitish complexion, he would discharge sticky and thick blood from the wound and would manifest symptoms of provoked Kapha. 17-18

Prognosis based on the place of bite

अश्वत्थ – देवायतन – श्मशान – वल्मीक – सन्ध्यासु चतुष्पथेषु |
याम्ये च दष्टाः परिवर्जनीया ऋक्षे सिरा – मर्मसु ये च दष्टाः || १९ ||

aśvattha – dēvāyatana – śmaśāna – valmīka – sandhyāsu catuṣpathēṣu |
yāmyē ca daṣṭāḥ parivarjanīyā r̥kṣē sirā – marmasu yē ca daṣṭāḥ || 19 ||

The wise physician should not take the case of a patient that has been bitten by a snake under an Asvattha tree (Ficus religiosa), in a temple, crematorium, near an anthill, at cross roads, have been bitten during the period of the constellation of Bharani or during the evenings. He should also avoid if the patient has been bitten on Siramarmas (vital spots on the body having prominence of veins). Such patients are incurable. 19

दर्विकराणां विषमाशुघाति सर्वाणि चोष्णे द्विगुणीभवन्ति |

darvikarāṇāṁ viṣamāśughāti sarvāṇi cōṣṇē dviguṇībhavanti |

The poison of hooded snakes is an instant killer while poisons of other snakes becomes twice powerful if associated with heat (touch of fire, warm objects, fomentation, warm season and the like. )

Other unfavourable prognostic factors

अजीर्ण – पित्तातपपीडितेषु बालेषु वृद्धेषु बुभुक्षितेषु |
क्षीणक्षते मेहिनि कुष्टयुक्ते रुक्षे अबले गर्भवतीषु चापि || २० ||

ajīrṇa – pittātapapīḍitēṣu bālēṣu vr̥ddhēṣu bubhukṣitēṣu |
kṣīṇakṣatē mēhini kuṣṭayuktē rukṣē abalē garbhavatīṣu cāpi || 20 ||

Likewise, the effect of poison could be doubly powerful among those suffering from indigestion, having diseases due to vitiation of pitta, exposure to sun. The effect could be also more powerful in children and the aged, and in those who are hungry, wounded, suffering from diabetes and leprosy. Similarly, effects of poison are doubled if they involve the ones who are ill nourished and women, especially the pregnant ones. 20 

शस्त्रक्षते यस्य न रक्तमेति राज्यो लताभिश्च न सम्भवन्ति || २१ ||
शीताभिरद्भिश्च न रोमहर्षो विषाभिभूतं परिवर्जयेत्तम् |
जिह्यां मुखं यस्य च केशशातो नासावसादश्च सकण्ठभङ्गः || २२ ||
कृष्णः सरक्तः श्वयथुश्च दंशे हन्वोः स्थिरत्वं च विवर्जनीयः |
वर्तिर्घना यस्य निरेति वक्त्राद्रक्तं स्रवेदूर्ध्वमधश्च यस्य || २३ ||
दंष्ट्रानिपाताश्चतुरश्च यस्य तं चापि वैध्यः परिवर्जयेच्च |
उन्मत्तमत्यर्थमुपद्रुतं वा हीनस्वरं वा अप्यथवा विवर्णम् || २४ ||
सारिष्टमत्यर्थमवेगिनं च ज्ञात्वा नरं कर्म न तत्र कुर्यात् |

śastrakṣatē yasya na raktamēti rājyō latābhiśca na sambhavanti || 21 ||
śītābhiradbhiśca na rōmaharṣō viṣābhibhūtaṁ parivarjayēttam |
jihyāṁ mukhaṁ yasya ca kēśaśātō nāsāvasādaśca sakaṇṭhabhaṅgaḥ || 22 ||
kr̥ṣṇaḥ saraktaḥ śvayathuśca danśē hanvōḥ sthiratvaṁ ca vivarjanīyaḥ |
vartirghanā yasya nirēti vaktrādraktaṁ sravēdūrdhvamadhaśca yasya || 23 ||
danṣṭrānipātāścaturaśca yasya taṁ cāpi vaidhyaḥ parivarjayēcca |
unmattamatyarthamupadrutaṁ vā hīnasvaraṁ vā apyathavā vivarṇam || 24 ||
sāriṣṭamatyarthamavēginaṁ ca jñātvā naraṁ karma na tatra kuryāt |

The person showing the following symptoms could be refused treatment:

  • Blood not flowing out even if a cut is made on the body of the patient,
  • Marks of blow not appearing on the skin even if the patient is severely beaten by a stick or rope,
  • Sprinkling of cold water (on the face) not causing horripilation (not arousing him to consciousness).

Similarly, the persons showing the following symptoms could be refused treatment:

  • Irregularity of the face
  • Falling of the hairs (or pulling out the hairs by force by the person himself),
  • Deformity of the nose,
  • Inability to hold the neck straight.
  • If there is oozing of  black blood and
  • If there appear swelling at the site of bite
  • Stiffness of lower jaw etc. are seen in the pateint, one should understand that he has become incurable.

Identically, the person showing the following symptoms could be refused treatment:

  • The saliva coming out of the mouth like a thick wick
  • Blood coming out of the body through the upper and lower orifices.
  • The physician should also not take up the case if he lacks expertise to remove the poison.

A case of the snake poisoning that turns the patient mad, that has several implications, whose patient develops a feeble voice and discoloured complexion, who has developed features of death and who is not having the urges of the body (urge or sensation of urination, defecation and the like) should also be rejected. 21-24

Dushi visha

Dushivisha – Definition

जीर्णं विषग्नौषधिभिर्हतं वा दावाग्निवातातपशोषितं वा || २५ ||
स्वभावतो वा गुणविप्रहीनं विषं हि दूषिविषतामुपैति |

jīrṇaṁ viṣagnauṣadhibhirhataṁ vā dāvāgnivātātapaśōṣitaṁ vā || 25 ||
svabhāvatō vā guṇaviprahīnaṁ viṣaṁ hi dūṣiviṣatāmupaiti |

Person who are old, which have become feeble due to the action of anti poisonous drugs upon them or which have become dried by the wild fire, wind and the sun or which are naturally devoid of thier specific properties are designated as pertaining to the case of dushivisha. 25

Dushivisha – Clinical features

वीर्याल्पभावान्न निपातयेतत्त् कफान्वितं वर्षगणानुबन्धि || २६ ||
तेनार्दितो भिन्नपुरिष – वर्णो वैगन्ध्य – वैरस्ययुतः पिपासि |
मूर्च्छां भ्रमं गद् गदवाग्वमिं च विचेष्टमानो अरतिमाप्नुयाद्वा || २७ ||

vīryālpabhāvānna nipātayētatt kaphānvitaṁ varṣagaṇānubandhi || 26 ||
tēnārditō bhinnapuriṣa – varṇō vaigandhya – vairasyayutaḥ pipāsi |
mūrcchāṁ bhramaṁ gad gadavāgvamiṁ ca vicēṣṭamānō aratimāpnuyādvā || 27 ||

The dushi visha owing to its poor potency does not kill the person (either immediately or after sometime). However, it is associated with kapha and remains inside the body without undergoing digestion. The person who is afflicted with such poison could develop symptoms of

  • Diarrhoea,
  • Discolouration, and
  • bad smell from the body,
  • bad taste in the mouth,
  • Thirst
  • Fainting
  • Giddiness
  • Stammering
  • Vomiting
  • Unnatural movements and
  • Restlessness.

He become apathetic towards all activities. 26-27

Clinical features according to the location of the poison

आमाशयस्थे कफ – वातरोगी, पक्वाशयस्थे अनिल – पित्तरोगी |
भवेत् समुद्ध्वस्त शिरोरुहाङ्गो विलूनपक्षस्तु यथा विहङ्गः || २८ ||

āmāśayasthē kapha – vātarōgī, pakvāśayasthē anila – pittarōgī |
bhavēt samuddhvasta śirōruhāṅgō vilūnapakṣastu yathā vihaṅgaḥ || 28 ||

If dushivisha is lodged in the stomach, the person becomes a patient of diseases resulting from the combined vitiation of kapha and Vata. If it is lodged in the intestines, he becomes a patient of diseases of Vata and Pitta. The hairs of his head and of other parts of the body fall off making him look like a bird whose feathers have fallen off. 28

Clinical features of Dushi visha lodged in the dhatus

स्थितं रसादिष्वथवा यथोक्तान् करोति धातुप्रभवान् विकारान् |
कोपं च शीतानिलदुर्दिनेषु यात्याशु, पूर्वं शृणु तस्य रूपम् || २९ ||

sthitaṁ rasādiṣvathavā yathōktān karōti dhātuprabhavān vikārān |
kōpaṁ ca śītāniladurdinēṣu yātyāśu, pūrvaṁ śr̥ṇu tasya rūpam || 29 ||

Further, when dushi visha is lodged in the rasa and other tissues of the body, it generates those ailments that are likely to develop in the respective tissues; the features become severe or troublesome by exposure to cold wind and on cloudy days. Please listen first to their prodromal (clinical) characteristics. 29

Premonitory and clinical features

निद्रागुरुत्वं च विजृम्भणं च विश्लेष – हर्षावथवा अङ्गमर्दम् |
ततः करोत्यन्नमदाविपाकावरोचकं मण्डलकोठजन्म || ३० ||
मांसक्षयं पाद – करप्रशोथं मूर्च्छां तथा छर्दिमथातिसारम् |
दूषिविषं श्वास – तृषा – ज्वरांश्च कुर्यात् प्रवृद्धिं जठरस्य चापि || ३१ ||

nidrāgurutvaṁ ca vijr̥mbhaṇaṁ ca viślēṣa – harṣāvathavā aṅgamardam |
tataḥ karōtyannamadāvipākāvarōcakaṁ maṇḍalakōṭhajanma || 30 ||
mānsakṣayaṁ pāda – karapraśōthaṁ mūrcchāṁ tathā chardimathātisāram |
dūṣiviṣaṁ śvāsa – tr̥ṣā – jvarānśca kuryāt pravr̥ddhiṁ jaṭharasya cāpi || 31 ||

The following are the features generated if one has affliction of the Dushivisha:

  • Excessive sleep
  • Feeling of heaviness in the body
  • Yawning
  • Looseness of joints
  • Horripilation
  • Mild pain in the body
  • Toxicity after meals
  • Indigestion
  • Loss of appetite.

Moreover,there is

  • appearance of rashes and papules on the skin,
  • Emaciation
  • Profound swelling of the feet,
  • Fainting,
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • thirst
  • Fever and
  • Enlargement of the stomach. 30-31

Other diseases due to Dushivisha

उन्मादमन्यज्जनयेत्तथा अन्यदानाहमन्यत् क्षपयेच्च शुक्रम् |
गाद्गध्यमन्यज्जनयेच्च कुष्टं तांस्तान् विकारांश्च बहुप्रकारान् || ३२ ||

unmādamanyajjanayēttathā anyadānāhamanyat kṣapayēcca śukram |
gādgadhyamanyajjanayēcca kuṣṭaṁ tānstān vikārānśca bahuprakārān || 32 ||

Some kinds of Dushi visha will generate insanity, some of them cause constipation, some produce loss of semen, while others generate stammering and some others even develop leprosy and several other diseases. 32

Derivation of Dushivisha

दूषितं देश – कालान्न – दिवास्वप्नैरभिक्षणशः |
यस्मात् संदूषयेद्दातून् तस्माद्दूषिविषं स्मृतम् || ३३ ||
साध्यमात्मवतः सध्यो, याप्यं संवत्सरोत्थितम् |
दूषिविषमसाध्यं स्यात् क्षीणस्याहितसेविनः || ३४ ||  

dūṣitaṁ dēśa – kālānna – divāsvapnairabhikṣaṇaśaḥ |
yasmāt sandūṣayēddātūn tasmāddūṣiviṣaṁ smr̥tam || 33 ||
sādhyamātmavataḥ sadhyō, yāpyaṁ sanvatsarōtthitam |
dūṣiviṣamasādhyaṁ syāt kṣīṇasyāhitasēvinaḥ || 34 ||

Dushi Visha is so called because it vitiates the dhatus, often and on, is influenced and supported by desha, kala, anna, and produce Divasvapna. It is curable, if the disease is of recent origin and has affected a person of strong will. It becomes chronic after one year and is incurable in persons who are emaciated, weak and who indulge in unhealthy eating practices and regimens. 33-34

Clinical features of Garavisha Poisoning

सौभाग्यार्थं स्त्रियः स्वेदं रजो नानाङ्गजान् मलान् |
शत्रुप्रयुक्तांश्च गरान् प्रयच्छन्त्यन्नमिश्रितान् ||३५ ||
तैः स्यात् पाण्डुः कृशो अल्पाग्निर्गरश्चास्योपजायते |
मर्मप्रधमनाध्मानं हस्तयोः शोथलक्षणम् || ३६ ||
जठरं ग्रहणिदोषो यक्ष्मा गुल्मः क्षयो ज्वरः |
एवंविधस्य चान्यस्य व्याधेर्लिङ्गानि दर्शयेत् ||३७ ||

saubhāgyārthaṁ striyaḥ svēdaṁ rajō nānāṅgajān malān |
śatruprayuktānśca garān prayacchantyannamiśritān ||35 ||
taiḥ syāt pāṇḍuḥ kr̥śō alpāgnirgaraścāsyōpajāyatē |
marmapradhamanādhmānaṁ hastayōḥ śōthalakṣaṇam || 36 ||
jaṭharaṁ grahaṇidōṣō yakṣmā gulmaḥ kṣayō jvaraḥ |
ēvanvidhasya cānyasya vyādhērliṅgāni darśayēt ||37 ||

Women in order to have control on thier husbands, induced by foes  administer artificial poison to men consisting of sweat, powder of parts of the body, menstrual fluid and excreta (of poisonous or non poisonous animals) mixed with eatable. These poisons are known as Gara Visha (Homicidal Poison).

The person becomes pale, emaciated, have a poor digestion, pain or other difficulties in vital organs, distension of stomach, swelling of the hands or becomes affected with the udara roga (enlargement of stomach), Grahani (duodenal diseases), Yakshma (tuberculosis), Gulma (abdominal tumours), kshaya (emaciation, consumption) and Jvara (fever). Signs and symptoms of similar other diseases may also be noticed. 35-37

Poisoning by Spider Bites

The Etymology of Luta (Spiders)

यस्माल्लूतं तृणं प्राप्ता मुनेः प्रस्वेदबिन्दवः |
तस्माल्लूतास्तु भाष्यन्ते संख्यया ताश्च षोडश || ३८ ||

yasmāllūtaṁ tr̥ṇaṁ prāptā munēḥ prasvēdabindavaḥ |
tasmāllūtāstu bhāṣyantē saṅkhyayā tāśca ṣōḍaśa || 38 ||

These spiders are called lutas because they are formed from the droplets of sweat of the Sage that fell on the grass. These lutas are of sixteen kinds. 38

General Clinical features of Luta Poisoning

ताभिर्दष्टे दंशकोथः प्रवृत्तिः क्षतजस्य च |
ज्वरो दाहो अतिसारश्च गदाः स्युश्च त्रिदोषजाः ||३९ || 
पिडका विविधाकारा मण्डलानि महान्ति च |
शोथा महान्तो मृदवो रक्ताः श्यावाश्चलास्तथा || ४० ||
सामान्यं सर्वलूतानामेतद् दंशस्य लक्षणम् |

tābhirdaṣṭē danśakōthaḥ pravr̥ttiḥ kṣatajasya ca |
jvarō dāhō atisāraśca gadāḥ syuśca tridōṣajāḥ ||39 ||
piḍakā vividhākārā maṇḍalāni mahānti ca |
śōthā mahāntō mr̥davō raktāḥ śyāvāścalāstathā || 40 ||
sāmānyaṁ sarvalūtānāmētad danśasya lakṣaṇam |

If bitten by these spiders, there could be putrefaction with a tendency to bleed, fever, burning sensation, diarrhoea and disorders due to the vitiation of all the three doshas, pustular eruptions of various shapes, large sized circular skin patches and extensive, soft, reddish or a blackish spreading oedema. These symptoms are generally seen in cases of spider bites. 39-40

Dushivisha Luta

दंशमध्ये तु यत् कृष्णं श्यावं वा जालकाचितम् ||४१ ||
उर्ध्वाकृति भृशं पाकं क्लेद – शोथ – ज्वरान्वितम् |
दूषिविषाभिर्लूताभिस्तद्दष्टमिति निर्दिशेत् || ४२ ||

danśamadhyē tu yat kr̥ṣṇaṁ śyāvaṁ vā jālakācitam ||41 ||
urdhvākr̥ti bhr̥śaṁ pākaṁ klēda – śōtha – jvarānvitam |
dūṣiviṣābhirlūtābhistaddaṣṭamiti nirdiśēt || 42 ||

If a spider, whose poison is considered slow acting, bites a person, then it causes black or blue colour at the centre of the bite, appearance of a network, elevation of the skin, severe pus formation, exudation, swelling, and fever. 41-42

Fatal Spider Bites

शोथः श्वेताः सिता रक्ताः पीता वा पिडका ज्वरः |
प्राणान्तिकाश्च जायन्ते श्वास – हिक्का – शिरोग्रहाः || ४३ ||

śōthaḥ śvētāḥ sitā raktāḥ pītā vā piḍakā jvaraḥ |
prāṇāntikāśca jāyantē śvāsa – hikkā – śirōgrahāḥ || 43 ||

When a person is bitten by spider, the poison quickly generates

  • swelling,
  • appearance of papules of whitem red, or yellow in colour,
  • Fever
  • difficulty in breathing
  • Hiccough and
  • Headache.

The poison could be fatal if not treated properly. 43

Rat bite dushivisha

आदंशाच्छोणितं पाण्डुमण्डलानि ज्वरो अरुचिः |
लोमहर्षश्च दाहश्चाप्याखुदूषिविषार्दिते || ४४ ||

ādanśācchōṇitaṁ pāṇḍumaṇḍalāni jvarō aruciḥ |
lōmaharṣaśca dāhaścāpyākhudūṣiviṣārditē || 44 ||

The following are the features of poisoning generated by rat bite:

  • Bleeding from the site of bite,
  • Appearance of white patches on the skin,
  • Fever,
  • Loss of appetite
  • Horripilation and
  • Burning sensation. 44

Incurable Rat Bite

मूर्च्छाङ्गशोथ – वैवर्ण्य – क्लेद – शब्दाश्रुति – ज्वराः |
शिरोगुरुत्वं लालासृक् छर्दिश्चासाध्यमूषिकैः || ४५ ||

mūrcchāṅgaśōtha – vaivarṇya – klēda – śabdāśruti – jvarāḥ |
śirōgurutvaṁ lālāsr̥k chardiścāsādhyamūṣikaiḥ || 45 ||

The following are the characteristic of incurable rat bites:

  • Fainting
  • swelling
  • Discolouration
  • Perspiration
  • Deafness
  • Fever
  • Feeling of heaviness of the head
  • Excess salivation
  • Vomiting of blood. 45

Chameleon (Krkalaasa) Bite

कार्ष्ण्यं श्यावत्वमथवा नानावर्णत्वमेव वा |
मोहो अथ वर्चसो भेदो दष्टे स्यात् कृकलासकैः || ४६ ||

kārṣṇyaṁ śyāvatvamathavā nānāvarṇatvamēva vā |
mōhō atha varcasō bhēdō daṣṭē syāt kr̥kalāsakaiḥ || 46 ||

When a Krkalaasa (chameleon) bites, one can notice black or bluish discolouration or appearance of the patches of different colours on the skin, delusion, and diarrhoea. 46

Scorpion Bite

दहत्यग्निरिवादौ च भिनत्तिवोर्ध्वमाशु च |
वृश्चिकस्य विषं याति दंशे पश्चात्तु तिष्टति || ४७ ||

dahatyagnirivādau ca bhinattivōrdhvamāśu ca |
vr̥ścikasya viṣaṁ yāti danśē paścāttu tiṣṭati || 47 ||

A scorpion bite, at first, makes one feel severe burning sensation as though one is touched by fire, severe pain as though the bitten limb is coming off and there is constant pain at the site. These are the features of the scorpion sting. 47

Fatal Scorpion Bite

दष्टो असाध्यश्च हृद्घ्राण – रसनोपहतो नरः |
मांसैः पतद्भिरत्यर्थं वेदनार्तो जहात्यसून् ||४८ ||

daṣṭō asādhyaśca hr̥dghrāṇa – rasanōpahatō naraḥ |
mānsaiḥ patadbhiratyarthaṁ vēdanārtō jahātyasūn ||48 ||

If the scorpion is very poisonous, the patient will develop

  • distress in the heart,
  • loss of the function of the nose and tongue,
  • the falling of fleshy tissues (from the bitten part) after putrefaction and
  • even death by severe pain. 48

Kanabha (Hornet) Bite

विसर्पः श्वयथुः शूलं ज्वरश्छर्दिरथापि च |
लक्षणं कणभैर्दष्टे दंशः इवावसीदति || ४९ ||

visarpaḥ śvayathuḥ śūlaṁ jvaraśchardirathāpi ca |
lakṣaṇaṁ kaṇabhairdaṣṭē danśaḥ ivāvasīdati || 49 ||

The features if one is stung by a Kanabha (wasp):

  • Ulcer spreading from place to place,
  • Swelling pain
  • Fever,
  • Vomiting and
  • Rashes at the site of bite. 49

Uccitinga Bite

हृष्टलोमोच्चितिङ्गेन स्तब्धलिङ्गो भृशार्तिमान् |
दष्टः शीतोदकेनेव सिक्तान्यङ्गानि मन्यते || ५० ||

hr̥ṣṭalōmōccitiṅgēna stabdhaliṅgō bhr̥śārtimān |
daṣṭaḥ śītōdakēnēva siktānyaṅgāni manyatē || 50 ||

Uccitinga (poisonous crab) bite produces

  • Horripilation
  • loss of consciousness and
  • severe pain. 50

Poisonous Frog Bite

एकदंष्ट्रार्दितः शूनः सरुजः पीतकः सतृट् |
छर्दिर्निद्रा च सविषैर्मण्डुकैर्दष्टलक्षणम् || ५१ ||

ēkadanṣṭrārditaḥ śūnaḥ sarujaḥ pītakaḥ satr̥ṭ |
chardirnidrā ca saviṣairmaṇḍukairdaṣṭalakṣaṇam || 51 ||

The following are the symptoms generated through the bite of poisonous frogs:

  • Swelling
  • Pain and
  • Yellow discolouration at the site of bite,
  • Thirst
  • Vomiting and
  • Excessive sleep. 51

Bites by Poisonous Fishes and Leeches

मत्स्यास्तु सविषाः कुर्युर्दाहं शोथं रुजं तथा |
कण्डु शोथं ज्वरं मूर्च्छां सविषास्तु जलौकसः || ५२ ||

matsyāstu saviṣāḥ kuryurdāhaṁ śōthaṁ rujaṁ tathā |
kaṇḍu śōthaṁ jvaraṁ mūrcchāṁ saviṣāstu jalaukasaḥ || 52 ||

The following features are noticed when a person is bitten by poisonous fish:

  • Burning sensation
  • swelling and pain;

If bitten by poisonous leeches it will generate

  • Itching
  • swelling
  • fever and
  • fainting. 52

Poisoning by the bite of Grha Godhika (Lizards)

विदाहं श्वयथुं तोदं स्वेदं च गृहगोधिका |

vidāhaṁ śvayathuṁ tōdaṁ svēdaṁ ca gr̥hagōdhikā |

Bite by Grha godhika (house lizard) will generate severe burning sensation, swelling, pricking pain and sweating.

Shatapadi (Centipede) Bite

दंशे स्वेदं रुजं दाहं कुर्याच्छतपदीविषम् ||५३ ||

danśē svēdaṁ rujaṁ dāhaṁ kuryācchatapadīviṣam ||53 ||

Bite by the centipede (Shatapadi) will generate perspiration, pain, and burning sensation. 53

Clinical features of Makshika Bite

कण्डुमान् मशकैरीषच्छोथः स्यान्मन्दवेदनः |
असाध्यकीटसदृशमसाध्यं मशकक्षतम् || ५४ ||

kaṇḍumān maśakairīṣacchōthaḥ syānmandavēdanaḥ |
asādhyakīṭasadr̥śamasādhyaṁ maśakakṣatam || 54 ||

Bite by ordinary mosquitoes will generate irritation, and slight swelling and mild pain while in those bitten by poisonous mosquitoes, the features identical to that of bite of poisononus insects will develop. 54

सद्यःप्रस्राविणि श्यावा दाह – मूर्च्छा – ज्वरान्विता |
पिडका मक्षिकादंशे तासां तु स्थगिका असुहृत् ||५५ ||

sadyaḥprasrāviṇi śyāvā dāha – mūrcchā – jvarānvitā |
piḍakā makṣikādanśē tāsāṁ tu sthagikā asuhr̥t ||55 ||

Bite of a makshika (flies/bees) generates bleeding, appearance of black colour at the site and burning sensation. In addition, fainting, fever and papules develop if the bee in question is of sthagika variety, its bite could prove fatal. 55

Teeth bite and nail scratch poisonings

चतुष्पद्भिर्द्विपद्भिश्च नख – दन्तविषं च यत् |
शूयते पच्यते वा अपि स्रवति ज्वरयत्यपि || ५६ ||

catuṣpadbhirdvipadbhiśca nakha – dantaviṣaṁ ca yat |
śūyatē pacyatē vā api sravati jvarayatyapi || 56 ||

Poisoning by nail – scratch and teeth bite of animals of four legs or two legs causes swelling, putrefaction, amd exudation from the site of bite and fever. These features are manifest when one is assaulted by the claws and teeth of animals of four legs or two legs. 56

Rabid Animals

श्व – शृगाल – तरक्ष्वर्क्ष- व्याघ्रादीनां यदा अनिलः |
श्लेष्मप्रदुष्टो मुष्णाति संज्ञां सञ्ज्ञावहाश्रितः || ५७ ||
तदा प्रस्रस्तलाङ्गूल – हनु – स्कन्धो अतिलालवान् |
अव्यक्तबधिरान्धश्च सो अन्यो अन्यमभिधावति || ५८ ||
प्रमूढो अन्यतमस्त्वेषां खादन् विपरिधावति |
तेनोन्मत्तेन दष्टस्य दंष्ट्रिणां सविषेण तु || ५९ ||
सुप्तता जायते दंशे कृष्णं चातिस्रवत्यसृक् |
दिग्धविद्धस्य लिङ्गेन प्रायशश्चोपलक्षितः || ६० ||

śva – śr̥gāla – tarakṣvarkṣa- vyāghrādīnāṁ yadā anilaḥ |
ślēṣmapraduṣṭō muṣṇāti sañjñāṁ sañjñāvahāśritaḥ || 57 ||
tadā prasrastalāṅgūla – hanu – skandhō atilālavān |
avyaktabadhirāndhaśca sō anyō anyamabhidhāvati || 58 ||
pramūḍhō anyatamastvēṣāṁ khādan viparidhāvati |
tēnōnmattēna daṣṭasya danṣṭriṇāṁ saviṣēṇa tu || 59 ||
suptatā jāyatē danśē kr̥ṣṇaṁ cātisravatyasr̥k |
digdhaviddhasya liṅgēna prāyaśaścōpalakṣitaḥ || 60 ||

When Vata is vitiated and when it associates with the provoked kapha, it invades and destroys the nervous system of animals such as dogs, fox, hyena, bear, tiger, and the like and makes them rabid. Such rabid animals will have thier tail, lower jaw and shoulders drooping down; they would eliminate large quantities of saliva, become blind and deaf, run amuck everywhere , fight with other animals, and would bite all others senselessly. 57-60

Fatal end after a rabid animal bite

येन चापि भवेद्दुष्टस्तस्य चेष्टां रुतं नरः |
बहुशः प्रतिकुर्वाणः क्रियाहीनो विपश्यति || ६१ ||

yēna cāpi bhavēdduṣṭastasya cēṣṭāṁ rutaṁ naraḥ |
bahuśaḥ pratikurvāṇaḥ kriyāhīnō vipaśyati || 61 ||

If bitten by such rabid animals, there could be loss of sensation at the site of the bite, black blood flows out freshly, the ulcer will have the features of a wound generated by poisonous weapon, while the patient imitates all the actions of the rabid animal. 61

Hydrophobia

दंष्ट्रीणा येन दष्टश्च तद्रूपं यस्तु पश्यति |
अप्सु चादर्शबिम्बे वा तस्य तद्रिष्टमादिशेत् || ६२ ||
त्रस्यत्यकस्माध्यो अभीक्षणं दृष्ट्वा स्पृष्ट्वा अपि वा जलम् |
जलत्रासं तु तं विध्याद्रिष्टं तदपि कीर्तितम् || ६३ ||

danṣṭrīṇā yēna daṣṭaśca tadrūpaṁ yastu paśyati |
apsu cādarśabimbē vā tasya tadriṣṭamādiśēt || 62 ||
trasyatyakasmādhyō abhīkṣaṇaṁ dr̥ṣṭvā spr̥ṣṭvā api vā jalam |
jalatrāsaṁ tu taṁ vidhyādriṣṭaṁ tadapi kīrtitam || 63 ||

The patient cries or shouts in the same manner, becomes unconscious and subsequently dies. Sight of the animal that bit him in water or in mirror is a fatal sign; the bitten person becomes frightened all of a sudden and repeatedly so at the sight and /or even touch of water, one should be understood to be suffering from Jalatrasa (hydrophobia) . This state should be regarded as severe pathological condition. 62-63

अदष्टो वा जलत्रासी न कथञ्चन सिद्द्यति |
प्रसुप्तो वोत्थितो वा अपि स्वस्थस्रस्तो न सिद्द्यति || ६४ ||

adaṣṭō vā jalatrāsī na kathañcana siddyati |
prasuptō vōtthitō vā api svasthasrastō na siddyati || 64 ||

A person having hydrophobia without being bitten by a rabid animal is not amenable to cure. Similarly, an otherwise healthy person, developing the symptoms of water phobia either in the sleeping or in a wakeful state, is considered incurable. 64

A poison free person

प्रशान्तदोषं प्रकृतिस्थधातुमन्नाभिकामं सममूत्र – विट्कं |
प्रसन्नवर्णेन्द्रिय – चित्त – चेष्टं वैध्यो अवगच्छेदविषं मनुष्यम् || ६५ ||

praśāntadōṣaṁ prakr̥tisthadhātumannābhikāmaṁ samamūtra – viṭkaṁ |
prasannavarṇēndriya – citta – cēṣṭaṁ vaidhyō avagacchēdaviṣaṁ manuṣyam || 65 ||

A Clinician should understand a person to have become free from effects of poison when his doshas are getting back to normal state, and all the tissues of his body being in normal condition. Moreover, the cured patient desires for eatables, eliminates urine, feces and the like. He would have a normal pleasant complexion and normal functioning of the senses and mind, with normal activities and behaviour. All these features are to be verified by the physician to declare the person as fully relieved of the effect of poison. 65 

इति श्री माधवकरविरचिते माधवनिदाने विषरोगनिदानं समाप्तम् || ६९ ||

iti śrī mādhavakaraviracitē mādhavanidānē viṣarōganidānaṁ samāptam || 69 ||

Thus concludes the chapter on Visha. 69